Apple differentiation strategy




apple differentiation strategy com Mar 28, 2012 · You can learn a lot about marketing strategy by studying Apple. Examples of the successful use of a differentiation strategy are Nike athletic shoes, Apple Computer, and Mercedes-Benz automobiles. The folks at Apple clearly understand the power of differentiation. A company can set itself apart from other competitors through its product. Jan 13, 2016 · Differentiation strategy … Lego It may seem now like a foregone conclusion that The Lego Movie would be a huge hit, but anyone who’s seen a great book, comic or toy turns into a terrible movie knows better. Using differentiation as their main source of competitive advantage, they have succeeded to the top of their industry, while retaining higher than industry Mar 20, 2014 · Example: Apple — Differentiation Strategy Apple Inc. That’s because Apple makes its packaging as artistic and visually appealing as the device inside. , industry wide) Broad Low cost leadership. The Apple Watch has a reserved space in each of the company sales points. Soon they were able to capture the market by and starting their product line. Apple has a limited but top notch product line. The product differentiation helps Apple maintain a premium pricing. Focus on design and functionality of See full list on panmore. Apple launched its first product ‘Apple 1 computer’ in 1976. However, a company can only charge a premium price as long as it has a competitive advantage, and analysts believe Apple is on the way to losing its “aspirational” status. This implies high volumes or some other way in which costs can be kept low despite the inherent costs of differentiation. avoid this situation Apple devised iPhone, iMac, iPad, and iPod but also  We explore the joint determination of product differentiation strategy and During the mid 1990s, Apple Computer Inc. Apple has employed a differentiation strategy to target a section of the consumer market and send a powerful message that its products stand out from the crowd. It began its operations from its simple marketing strategy of offering technologically advanced, user-friendly personal computers. Meanwhile, most customers APPLE'S STRATEGY Broad Differentiation Strategy of Apple Broad Differentiation Strategy Apple uses the broad differentiation strategy. Here are some examples of differentiation strategies for how companies set up differently based on specific elements of their business. 0 Introduction 1. Slowing innovation: If this happens, then Apple may lose a competitive edge. Nov 10, 2019 · Differentiation. Though Apple's iPhone and iTunes music business is profitable in its own right, Apple's venture into these product areas was based on a strategy of using the music business to help boost the appeal of Apple's computing business. Chan Kim, Renée Mauborgne, Oh Young Koo Summary: This case introduces the application of blue ocean strategy in the context of managing a business portfolio at the corporate level. Apple's iPod, the portable digital player, was launched in October 2001. </p> <p>all the strategic initiatives are started in the beginning of the 90s. Feb 03, 2016 · Apple is an acknowledged master at creating an iconic sensory experience that communicates its brand without any words or even a logo. STRATEGIES The term ‘Strategy’ has been adapted from war and is being increasingly used in business to reflect broad overall objectives and policies of an enterprise. The … In conclusion, differentiation strategy is a kind of effective competitive strategy, which is based on the customer's mind. By adopting  When a product is able to differentiate itself from differentiated their brands e. They are definitely not working on Price differentiation. Types of Differentiation Strategy. Although you want your business to excel in all things, it has been proven time and time again that specialization is the key to success. Mar 27, 2020 · Differentiation focus strategy is a hybrid of focus strategy and differentiation strategy. APPLE’S STRATEGY FAILURE PUT APPLE IN CRISIS (1997) 5 How We Failed Apple (by Steve Wozniak, Newsweek, February 19, 1996) 5 4. 2001 2011 ipods 4 & 4s 6. This has been achieved through designing and production of unique products (Furrer 2010: 231). One of the biggest mistakes people make when looking at Apple business strategy is to look at it solely as it was a product company. The business strategy proposes how a specific business model can gain competitive advantage over its competitors in the industry. Apple is headquartered in Cupertino, California and was founded by Steve Jobs. Mar 09, 2015 · 2. All the products they produce use similar design techniques, and these techniques can be used on many other different devices without changing its format. A BRIEF LOOK AT APPLE’S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO. So, Why Apple’s pricing strategy can be success. For ex-ample, when Apple co-founder Steve Jobs returned to Apple Ta b l e 1 Comparison of cost and differentiation strategies. Steve Jobs's Second Coming To Apple. Companies pursuing a differentiation strategy can command a premium price for it’s products or services, eventually seeing increased unit sales due to the differentiation factor as well as increased buyer loyalty. Jul 10, 2018 · The reputation of Apple as it is today is based on the desire strategy that it sets up at each product launch. , as adaptation increases standardisation decreases and vice versa. It frequently  Tips on how Apple has been using the successful differentiation strategy to enjoy market leadership in personal computer and consumer electronics business. The … Apple’s competitive strategy is differentiation across the industry. Is it possible to increase profit margins while maintaining product differentiation strategy ? Maintaining Brand Reputation & Loyalty. ค. Horizontal differentiation is when products are differentiated according to a specific feature. Apple's WWDC, app development process, Android or iOS, free and paid apps. Keeping all Standardisation and adaptation of the marketing strategy are two extremes of a continuum, i. •This has been achieved through designing and production of unique products. This is a strategy of making your product different from those of the competing brands. Form Over Function One of Apple’s main strategies when it comes to product development lies in its ability to provide well-designed products and services – with Jul 10, 2019 · Generic strategy: The generic strategy used by Apple is that of differentiation. penetrating emerging economies. Pair that with rampant expansion plans that puts the technology giant at 420+ stores around the world, and we're talking about some serious revenue numbers, approximately $170 billion worth (2013). 5. IMAC (1998) 6 Apple of Buyers’ Eye: iMac Takes Biggest Bite of PC Sales with Jobs Key to Quick Turnaround (NY Daily News, December 23, 1998) 6 5. The company has been providing robust technology products and exceptional software services. Apple business strategy consists of the following three elements: 1. This creates more pressure to stimulate customer demand and to maintain a reasonable sales price to drive revenue and profit. The Nature of the Focused Differentiation Strategy. 2) Product-level differentiation strategy – Observed in many industries, Differentiation strategy can be executed at product level too. Jun 02, 2011 · Apple’s Hardware + Software Now this may be obvious to some, but it is incredibly significant for Apple. Sep 12, 2011 · This past August Apple became the most valuable corporation in the world based on market capitalization, surpassing every firm in the technology industry and every other industry! As a consumer products company, its prolonged growth spurt is even more amazing because it has continued through economic times when consumers are reluctant to spend what little they have. Not every company has product launches On the other hand, you could opt for being unique by opening the first vegan pizza in town (differentiation strategy). Indeed, this differentiation has allowed the company to price the products at a premium while still retaining its loyal customers. 5bn and wearables at $5. Apple attempts to increase market demand for its products through differentiation, which entails making its products unique and attractive to consumers. Aug 04, 2014 · Bajarin has been with Creative Strategies since 1981 and has provided research to most of the leading hardware and software vendors in the industry including IBM, Apple, Xerox, Compaq, Dell, AT&T This differentiation strategy involves using the characteristics of the product you market to differentiate from your competitors. The rest is history. While the rest of the PC industry is struggling with differentiation, Apple has had it since day one. The tourism marketer must make the important decision as to whether he or she wishes to use an undifferentiated, concentrated, or differentiated targeting strategy (Table 5. Apple is differentiated by other company by its brand-perception and identification. Thus, to keep up with their existing positions and to become a declared leader, both of the brands need to have effective marketing strategies. Apple then further advances its differentiation strategy through its Apple Stores, which are built with design in mind from the start. This differentiated it and built its own followership. “Apple does well, but has had top-down As a side-note: the distinction between “differentiation on the basis of operational efficiency” and “differentiation based on strategically-chosen activities” is a clear lens through which to understand Apple vs. Apple uses a differentiation business strategy, which means that all employees and departments work together in the creation of their products. Nov 21, 2018 · Apple Corp. Competition from major firms: Competition could intensify. Apple’s corporate level strategy compete others on many different levels. 7 “Differentiation”). Apple has become a cult-brand in the last couple of years. One of the main reasons for Apple’s success has to do with their large commitment to satisfying customers while continuously innovating their products and design without creating a sense of “too much” or confusing their consumers through new operating systems. First of all, there is a very strong brand to make support. When it comes to consumer electronics and computing technology, one of the most recognizable names in the world is Apple. 3 percent market share, shipping 11. In my opinion, we all have a lot to Oct 04, 2017 · Apple business strategy can be classified as product differentiation in plan and functionality. 3. 2) Broad Differentiation Businesses use the marketing strategy of product differentiation to distinguish their products from those of their competitors. -Signs of this: Apple announces 25 stores in China. Oct 30, 2018 · Apple does a phenomenal job creating products and services that are unique and special. The goal of a differentiation strategy is to add unique features that will increase the perceived value of goods and services in the minds of consumers so they are willing to pay a higher price. Apple, Clif Bar and Company, Ben & Jerry’s and T Mobiles. May 26, 2016 · 1. The announcement has certainly calmed nerves on Wall Street about Apple, which was able to point to not only a strong performance from the iPhone but to solid contributions from services at $11. Nov 11, 2020 · Sixteen years on from the PowerPC-to-Intel transition, and Apple’s software differentiation is the smallest it has been since the dawn of OS X. Recent History Academia. Using a differentiated marketing strategy, a company goes after each distinct target market with a different product or service. Every brand is built on a product (I include services here as well). Computers designed for professionals have complex functions that meet their today’s requirements. Apple may use a one size-fits-all strategy for their products, but that strategy allows them to launch in so many countries because they have minimal customization to subject their phones to. Read the whole story: Revisiting The Apple-NeXT Deal And Why It Mattered. STRATEGY Apple has achieved its outstanding performance through effectively implementing an unconventional strategy: differentiation through innovation (along various dimensions that include serial, strategic and incremental innovation), with simultaneous intense levels of efficiency, leading to the lowest costs in its peer group. For Airbnb, it underlines everything they do and has transformed their site from a marketplace to a travel platform which engages users and hosts. Apple has done so, consistently, with all of its product offerings. While Samsung's business-level strategy is cost leadership, differentiation is also remarkably evident. Apple Watch [Photo: Celine Grouard] FC: So this differentiation I’m trying to create between Face ID on one end and HomePod on the other, you don’t see it that way. low-cost strategy to product differentiation strategy (Gam-ble and Gehani, 2013). Every corner of the box is clean. Enterprises to operate their business by use one of the strategies to expand competitive advantage, as its dominant strategy. 1974 The idea for Apple Computers was BORN 1976 First Computer was SOLD 3. Differentiation The second generic strategy according to Porter is one of differentiating the product or service offering of a firm. In doing so, you've gained a small amount  We will also analyze Apple's financials to determine if they are on a successful, sustainable path. 0000007065 00000 n Moreover, its iTunes store and App stores make the company a leader in accessibility of digital music, video, and apps. Jun 10, 2020 · A Mac with an ARM microprocessor is certainly a very interesting proposition, allowing Apple to improve the differentiation it charges such high prices for and that keeps its profit margins so high. --- Pursue minimal yet effective product and price differentiation to make product range more attractive in emerging markets. It can therefore be called a competition response strategy. For a long time, Apple has been a dominant force in the technology industry, and this  Their success is a direct result of their marketing strategies. Apr 02, 2019 · Apple business strategy can be classified as product differentiation. Apple Differentiation vs. strategy of implementing a 55% profit margin on Apple products (Apple History, 2015). Apple business strategy additionally incorporates constructing and growing its own particular retail and online stores and its third-party distribution network to viably achieve more clients and provide them with high-quality sales and post-sales May 19, 2007 · By controlling all aspects of the process, Apple is able to produce a machine that works with its software, and software that takes advantage of its hardware out of the box. The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis, Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey 7S Model on Apple. So it’s definitely a Learn how your comment data is processed. Differentiation strategy. Apple implement strategies at all levels of operation. The company headquarters is in Cupertino, California, CEO and co-founder is Steve Jobs and the company boasts of 284 retail locations spanning 10 different countries. May 28, 2019 · A strong content strategy can assist in supporting the entire customer journey and plays a huge part in communicating the value of your brand, establishing trust, and forming an enduring connection. Sep 29, 2010 · Market segmentation strategy enables a company to drive complete, unified product solutions that are harmonious with messaging, customer outreach, and channel strategies for selling and supporting customers. Even a five year-old can pick out an iPhone from a retail display. No matter the size of your business, or which industry you come from, you should find that a differentiation strategy helps to give you a competitive advantage in a market that’s A Study of Product Differentiation Strategy in Mobile Devices Specifically In Smartphones about Smartphones Features. Nov 15, 2020 · I sit on a lot of PC company advisory boards, and, while this may surprise you, I actually point out Apple's competitive advantages on a regular basis. Apr 03, 2017 · Meanwhile, Apple’s new cross-platform TV app is an attempt to create a platform that delivers video on every screen in Apple’s arsenal, all with a simple interface, voice control and cloud Apple Computers co-founder Steve Jobs sought to create a topnotch product with a price proportionate to its level of quality while maintaining high profit margins (Hanks, 2015) Apple's pricing strategy extends to its differentiation in the retail electronics marketplace. This is a change from the differentiation |RECOMMENDATION --- Aggressive expansion into new, emerging markets. Cost Focus Strategy This strategy is quite a resemblance to the cost leadership strategy; however, a major difference is that the cost focus strategy businesses target a particular segment within the The two approaches to strategies we are going to examine are: differentiation (specialty) and low cost strategies (commodity). It has many ways to differentiate a product that have value and please customers and the needs and uses of buyers are diverse whereas, few rivals are following a similar differentiation approach. Routes 4 and 5 are differentiation strategies. This generic strategy focuses on key features that differentiate the company and its  You cannot buy Apple's operating system for non-Apple computers. For apple, there exists a strong unique differentiation. But the area in which they choose personalization is their technical local requirements. com on November 13, 2020 by guest [eBooks] Marketing Strategy Of Apple Thank you for downloading marketing strategy of apple. This is one strategy that Samsung ought to learn from Apple because it has been left to pick up the pieces behind Apple’s success (at least in the tablet market). Sam Grobart, Other strategies the firm uses to achieve cost leadership include better sourcing of raw materials, better manufacturing practices, and better quality control. An assessment of Apple and Nokia's corporate strategy as to determine the strongest of the two. Apple attempts to increase market demand for its products through differentiation, which entails making its products unique and  Apple produced differentiated products with features that multiple niche market segments and pay for but Apple also makes products in the form of competitive cost  From its Macintosh home computers to the iPod music players and iPhone and iPad mobile devices, Apple has employed a differentiation strategy to target a  9 Apr 2018 We can describe Apple's strategy in terms of product differentiation [Pt 1] and strategic alliances [Pt 2]. We'll see the next iteration of the Mac operating system, when Apple demonstrates an almost feature complete Mac OS X Snow Leopard. Focus strategy based on cost. May 01, 2016 · Apple chose this pricing strategy, its most fundamental essence lies in its consideration of the psychological needs of consumers. Apple Inc. 2 Jun 2011 I am a big picture strategic thinker by nature and I love thinking about and strategizing around competitive advantage and differentiation. Very likely, you'd choose the colorful red apple because it is different and unique among the other apples in the photo. It frequently  13 Sep 2020 "Apple's introduction of a $1,000 iPhone is consistent with its business strategy of differentiation and exclusivity, targeting the higher end of the  19 May 2016 With Apple, you don't just buy a computer or a phone, but a seamless array of This is a change from the differentiation strategies of the past. ” This saying captures the essence of a differentiation strategy. g. Examples of these include Apple, Fidelity Investments, BMW and Pfizer. Critical examinations of the most recent iterations of the iPhone as well as Apple’s pricing strategy have been clogging up my newsfeed for the better part of the past week (along with the story about the sucker who paid $10,000 for an iPhone 5S). Is this differentiation strategy successful? A quick trip to any computer store suggests that  parent brand for a successful differentiation strategy[19]. Apr 20, 2019 · Apple Inc Report contains a full analysis of Apple segmentation, targeting and positioning and Apple marketing strategy in general. Steve Jobs’s Second Coming To Apple Many strategic leaders of innovative U. they make high quality items that their competition would find hard to mimic and sell at a lower price for the… Jan 29, 2019 · Apple is a confusing company. Apple has a history of shunning strategic alliances. Apple faced a huge loses at that time and went back into the shadow (Apple History, 2015). Later, Apple introduced the easy-to-use iMac in 1998, and updates following 1998. Now, let's look at Apple's strategy vs Samsung's strategy. I haven't seen them in a long time so here you go. Apple’s pricing strategy extends to its differentiation in the retail electronics marketplace. The general conclusion: Apple is “doubling down” on strategic differentiation. is an American corporation that designs and manufactures computer hardware, software and other consumer electronics. Cost leadership Differentiation. A famous cliché contends that “you get what you pay for. enterprises venture to focus on differentiation with product innovation. See full list on ivypanda. Michael Porter uses 4 strategies that an organisation can choose from. In 1997 Apple Computer was in deep trouble. There is a quite  19 Jun 2019 Features like multitasking and Apple Pencil support give iPad differentiation from its more popular sibling (iPhone). Conventional Apple Computers co-founder Steve Jobs sought to create a topnotch product with a price proportionate to its level of quality while maintaining high profit margins (Hanks, 2015) Apple's pricing strategy extends to its differentiation in the retail electronics marketplace. . Apple is an example of a firm operating a differentiation strategy to sell its laptops to a broad market. A focused differentiation strategy requires offering unique features that fulfill the demands of a narrow market (Figure 5. experienced severe financial and op- . As a result, especially in the early stages of the brand building process where not enough emotional connections have been built, product-based Nov 11, 2018 · There are few business examples who successfully differentiated their brands e. stand alone as Apple's two major markets, and while China is still far behind the U. Apple’s Three Leaders Say They’ve Never Been More Committed to a Single Strategy. Pros. This particular strategy focuses on market research data to understand the client and also to identify what the current competitors are doing to fulfill what the market is expecting. Sep 10, 2010 · Product differentiation is a viable strategy, especially if the company exploits the conceptual distinctions for product differentiation. Considering that Apple was Jul 05, 2018 · Apple Music: Apple Music is the new offering from Apple that allows customers access to unlimited latest songs by paying a monthly or annual subscription to them. --- Explore various retail If there is one aspect to highlight in the price trend of Apple is the differentiation between their own products. It has innovated technologies and introduced products in the market that weren’t already available. Cost advantage Scale and scope None required. The company serves a wide range of differentiated product to the customers ranging from the classy power user to the new first time users. Apple’s Unique Differentiation. Apple is known mainly as the maker of Mac, Ipod and Itunes as well as the Iphone. Businesses 3 = hybrid strategy. and privacy as its key areas of differentiation. Risks May 19, 2016 · With Apple, you don’t just buy a computer or a phone, but a seamless array of related online services and a genius bar to help you solve problems. Oct 17, 2020 · The Apple Stores also help have much finer control over the customer experience and apart from showcasing Apple products and devices, Apple Stores double up as service centres. In a low cost strategy, the true winner is the company with the actual lowest cost in the market place. Offering better products and services at higher selling prices. Apple is one of the few computer-based companies that have retail stores worldwide. The folks at Apple clearly  26 Dec 2017 Apple is obviously a Product differentiated company. APPLE STORES (2001) 7 (DOC) Apple’s Strategy | Mayor Ade - Academia. Since the 1980s, Apple Inc. Apple's design skills or Pixar's  Porter called these generic strategies "Cost Leadership" , "Differentiation" and use of a differentiation strategy are Nike athletic shoes, Apple Computer, and  14 Sep 2019 Apple's Business Level Strategies. 10 Sep 2010 This case study describes Apple's business strategies in terms of product differentiation and strategic alliances. Understand the importance of Chinese market to Apple’s growth. The 5 different types of business-level strategy: Although there are many different types of business-level strategies, we’ll take you through the five main ones. |RECOMMENDATION --- Aggressive expansion into new, emerging markets. Product Differentiation  APPLE INC STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT REPORT Author: Andrew Cummins Word The report has identified Apple Inc strategy as a differentiation strategy. Nike also uses a much similar strategy. 14 “Focused Differentiation”). Aug 10, 2020 · Product differentiation is a viable strategy, especially if the company exploits the conceptual distinctions for product differentiation. Product differentiation is economically advantageous to a company. Popular Posts. This is also called product differentiation. There are primarily 6 ways to differentiate, These include: Product Differentiation – Creating a product with better features, performance or efficacy. Branding. Apr 28, 2016 · Apple is the fastest growing retailer in history and has dominated the holy covet of retail metrics, sales per square foot, almost since its inception, which currently sits at $4,551. They are a company that focuses on innovation, and by that I mean with new products, but also improvements on their existing products. It has around 450 stores within the US. However, once markets become less differentiated, a specialized approach — where each member of a supply chain has a role — makes sense. Apple: is the perfect example it Providing uniquely superior benefits, all three revolutionary Apple products – the iPod, iPhone, and iPad – provided some Differentiation Strategy The concept of differentiation has also been widely adopted by Apple Inc in enhancing its competitiveness and profitability. Perhaps the most important point is this: be different. Apple does a phenomenal job creating products and services that are unique and special. Samsung uses prompting strategies by lowering the prices, making it more affordable for customers. 31 Aug 2020 Learn how to create a differentiation strategy with tips and examples of the differentiation strategies successful brands have used. Apple's disruption play focuses on eliminating fees (annual fees, international fees, late fees Apr 30, 2016 · Tech giants Apple have been selling their line of products such as the Iphone, the Ipad and the Ipod for about a decade now. While it will never be at the low end of smartwatches Analytical perspective of both apple and samsungs’ business strategies Apple Inc. Horizontal Differentiation. Since the beginning Apple differentiated its products with innovation, sleek design and marketing strategies. It entails development of a product or service, that is unique for the customers, in terms of product design, features, brand Differentiation strategy is a way for a business to distinguish itself from the competition. The world’s 2nd most valuable brand with a brand valuation of $146+ billion, Apple over the past many years have created a niche that no other product in its category has been able to achieve. The investment analyst firm Market Realist identified brand strength, innovation, supply chain management and premium pricing strategy as key factors in the company’s competitive advantage. a war of words, with Apple saying 'Samsung wilfully stole' ideas Sources: S. Thus, the company that adopts a differentiation strategy can increase profits by charging higher prices and can’ outperform its competitors. Feb 17, 2018 · In this article, we will 1) briefly look at Apple’s product portfolio and 2) investigate Apple’s product strategy. Competitive Strategies for Different Market Position. com Apple attempts to increase market demand for its products through differentiation, which entails making its products unique and attractive to consumers. 5bn. Apple's Unique Differentiation · Apple's Image of Innovation · Premium Pricing Strategy of Apple Inc  In Porter's competitive forces model, the strategic position of the firm and its Product differentiation: Use information systems to enable new products and  c). Product differentiation is a viable strategy, especially if the company exploits the conceptual distinctions for product differentiation. DIFFERENTIATION APPLICATION. Apple, Clif Bar  Some quick no equipment workouts that helped me. The new Mac Pro is clear  28 Mar 2012 You can learn a lot about marketing strategy by studying Apple. Broad Differentiation Nov 18, 2016 · Apple's stock buybacks strategy reached it's limit. Nov 09, 2020 · David Bui CEO and Founder of Saleschase. This contrasts with a more universal, mass market approach, in which the same product is offered to the total audience and different benefits May 10, 2017 · Brand differentiation is a part of any comprehensive marketing strategy that your business can use to distinguish itself from the other offerings on the market. Since then, Apple has grown exponentially Sep 07, 2019 · Apple must win at a services strategy to grow. It is one of the world’s largest information technology Differentiation Strategies. This also means that Apple’s overall strategy is differentiation—their products are substantially better than and different from competing products, and as a result, they should seek higher profit margins. Apple’s aim is to take advantage of the increased technological There are three different targeting strategies that a tourism marketer can implement. There was then on R&D and a superb brand is a winner. TC: I think about things Dec 04, 2018 · 1. Apple Business Strategy 2012; The Attractive Platform Strategy of Facebook, Amazon and Apple; Strategy, Differentiation & Alignment: 5 Examples from Apple ; A Slippery Slope: Dissing Facts and Science Apple's diversification strategy pays off The tech giant is almost back to a valuation of $1trn. Owning an iPhone has become a symbol of class today. Apple designs are user centric and bridges the gaps that that are unseen or unaddressed by the competitors. Tying rewards to the achievement of key strategic goals can also be said to be a factor in the success of the design strategy of the company. txt) or read online for free. This enables them not only to charge a premium price but also to combat competitors. Differentiation advantage Low (price strategies) Apple’s Business Level Strategy 1. It  Which competitive strategy does your company pursue? Cost leadership or An excellent example of the use of a differentiation strategy is Apple. You might rightly ask, what exactly do they have to do with the […] Apple’s enterprise strategy begins to take shape Apple is an American multinational company best known for developing and selling electronic devices and software worldwide. Their strategy for  5 Jun 2019 Apple Inc. Jul 14, 2020 · Apple corporate strategy for computers and portable electronics has been consistent since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984: integrated hardware and software from a single supplier; attention to design details; and a pricing point that allows them to command a highly profitable market segment. marketing-strategy-of-apple 1/1 Downloaded from calendar. With the combination of the 2 strategy, Apple managed to achieve high profit margin where it produces its smart phone cheaply and selling them at a premium price. aimed to develop and send to market various types of products that only they could provide. Palash Goyal -2014 MBA15 2. b)Differentiation strategy The meaning of differentiation policy: In command to attain competitive advantage compared to the opponents, businesses execute the plan to make a distinction themselves from the opponents in features of item for consumption, service, appearance, and other (Singer, 2007). 's generic strategy is broad differentiation. 2 This view also explains why Apple is going to bundle a year of Apple TV+ Oct 19, 2017 · After all, Apple killed off their enterprise server product years ago. is one of the most successful companies in the world. Apple  30 Apr 2016 Tech giants Apple have been selling their line of products such as the Iphone, the Ipad and the Ipod for about a decade now. Even though Netflix mainly applies cost leadership as its generic strategy for competitive advantage, the business also uses differentiation in its operations. May 04, 2017 · Apple products are precisely standardized throughout international markets and suppliers across the world, which reduces costs and overhead – there is little differentiation or customization Competitive Advantage: Differentiation strategy of Apple Inc also offers competitive advantage to the firm. That mistake Jun 02, 2011 · Apple’s Hardware + Software Now this may be obvious to some, but it is incredibly significant for Apple. A Competitive Analysis of Apple and Nokia - Free download as PDF File (. Like Like Sep 11, 2019 · Apple TV Channels is a means to buy subscriptions to other streaming services, which makes a lot of money for Roku and Amazon in particular; Apple TV+ content is a reason to make Apple TV the default interface for video leading to more subscriptions via Apple TV Channels. May 16, 2015 · wherein I have discussed the strategy used by Apple for pricing i. is a technology and innovative company, which designs, produces and sells Imac, Iphones, Ipods, music. The rest can be found here: http://neilarey. Nov 17, 2017 · Differentiation increasingly requires more innovative thinking, and the use of very specific areas of expertise (like Apple’s winning design, a capability that wouldn’t have been prioritized May 10, 2018 · The Generic Strategies can be used to determine the direction (strategy) of your organisation. Apple is the leading brand that has implanted the differentiation strategy. Tibken, 2015, Apple versus Samsung patent trial recap, CNET, and Samsung referring to 'grossly exaggerated claims' May: M. Finally, the CSR differentiation conditions  10 Nov 2015 Apple's approach to differentiation is exemplary. Focused differentiation is the second of two focus strategies. Apr 16, 2015 · Or consider Apple’s success in the highly commoditized PC industry. Looking back both Apple and Microsoft (Disclosure: Microsoft is a client of the author) made pivotal strategic mistakes in their operating system strategies that the other firm did well. Apr 18, 2018 · A concern with a product differentiation strategy is the investment you typically have to make to produce or acquire a top-notch product. The company’s products have always been Jul 07, 2018 · Brand Positioning of Apple Understanding Apple’s Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. They use the focused differentiation strategy, by making products that are exclusive, and pretty expensive. Focus strategy based in differentiation: Apple has differentiated it products focusing on the professionals and producing computers tailored to meet exact needs professionals. Sep 15, 2014 · Apple's strategy seems to start at the premium market to cover its initial R&D costs for the first two years or so before dropping the price. In such a market, Apple has been offering unique differentiation. 1). Making great efforts to achieve lower costs than competitors and appealing to broad number of customers, it goes on usually by under-pricing competitors. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. In each Differentiation The concept of differentiation has also been widely adopted by Apple Inc in enhancing its competitiveness and profitability. Feb 15, 2016 · An example of this is Apple’s differentiated expertise in software, hardware, and services. 2. May 28, 2019 · It is almost impossible to point out that Apple has differentiated itself from its competitors by remaining unique. Now many may disagree with me, however I think that Apple is more of a software company than a hardware company. Not everyone can afford a Apple product. The problem for me is Apple's market share Apple's alliance with IBM and Motorola was a business level cooperative strategy in response to the competition posed by the Wintel alliance of Microsoft Windows and Intel. They are masters at both creating it and destroying it. 1 Introduction of Apple: Apple Inc. They are; Broad Differentiation Strategy, and Focused Differentiation Strategy. Secondly, there are a number of customer with strong purchasing power and not sensitive of price. The quality standards in Apple are some of the best, and the design teams in the company are reputed to put in some extreme efforts to ensure that the products developed are of the best standard possible. Apple differentiation strategy just from $13,9 / page. is the most famous name in the technology sector, it is an innovative electronics manufacturer, which is giving benefits to the consumers and to the suppliers, and the company is using successful strategies in the market so the best results could be achieved. In this regard, Apple’s product strategy is a study in market segmentation. Apple is constantly pursuing this strategy which reflects in the  6 Jun 2012 Over the past decade, Apple has grown to be one of the most who best understood innovation, differentiation, strategic positioning, and how  24 Feb 2017 An effective brand differentiation strategy is essential for create a strong, loyal following or even brand evangelism (think Apple and Harley  4 Mar 2012 I was first introduced to Apple in the mid-1980s, when I would visit my on a differentiation strategy that included creative advertising, a new  17 Feb 2016 Apple's generic strategy is broad differentiation; this strategy focuses on differentiating the company and its products from its rivals. With the help of this competitive advantage, Apple Inc handles the challenges and issues posed by its rival firms like Dell Computers, Google, Research in Motion, Microsoft etc in overseas market. In other words, it is very hard for Samsung to differentiate their Android phones from the competitors'   9 Oct 2020 Product differentiation is a marketing management strategy that aims to All the big brands you can think of, such as McDonald's, Nike, Apple,  18 Oct 2018 So, how has Apple managed to succeed with such a pricing strategy? Their base rule, for example, differentiate the storage capacity of each  A differentiation strategy is appropriate where the target unique technical expertise (e. While users can purchase computers, tablets and mobile phones from nearly any electronics outlet, Apple differentiates itself by providing limited quantities to big box retailers and focusing its retail efforts on its Apple Stores. Apr 12, 2009 · The company was started by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in the 1970’s. Keeping all athletic shoes, Apple Computer, and Mercedes-Benz automobiles. 22/03/ ก็พวกแบรนด์มือถือ คอมพิวเตอร์ รถยนต์ เครื่องใช้ไฟฟ้าต่างๆ เช่น Apple, BMW, Samsung  4 Nov 2014 The key point of Apple watch's success will be differentiation, which is not making people to buy things but providing people what they need. 1986 1997 Apple II was introduced Steve Job returns to apple 5. Apr 16, 2018 · We can describe Apple’s strategy in terms of product differentiation [Pt 1] and strategic alliances [Pt 2]. Another strategy is a vision differentiation strategy which means that the company will target customers of unique and distinct products or services to a specific target. So, if you want to gain a competitive advantage over others, then follow Apple business strategy. Like Like Apple imposed its vision of what smartphones should be on the industry. Apple was on track to lose $378 million on revenues of $7billion on top of a $740 million loss in 1996. Building its wealth on a history of innovations that changed daily life — from its leading role in the personal computer revolution Challenges a) b) c) Is it possible to increase profit margins while maintaining product differentiation strategy ? Maintaining Brand Reputation & Loyalty The need to continuously develop and implement new differentiation strategies to sustain competitive advantage d) B) The company's new take on cloud-based app storage also took years to work through its first awkward stages, but within a fews years it too became a solid part of Apple's overall strategy, and is Apr 02, 2013 · China and the U. 1. is perceived to defy the law of marketing and employ a rather unique marketing strategy where the company’s products are made to suit different end users’ specifications. A focused differentiation strategy is same as the differentiation strategy except with a narrow focus on a niche market. Make math learning fun and effective with Prodigy Math Game. The four strategies to choose from are: Cost Leadership; Differentiation; Cost Focus Examples of the successful use of a differentiation strategy are Hero, Asian Paints, HUL, Nike athletic shoes (image and brand mark), BMW Group Automobiles, Perstorp BioProducts, Apple Computer (product's design), Mercedes-Benz automobiles. com/workouts. The technology industry is full of undifferentiated products. com Oct 30, 2020 · Apple, Inc. Further buybacks may hurt Apple's listing in other indexes. This type of differentiation is very easy to copy by your competitors and is often very short-lived. Once known as a company that sold niche products at high prices, Apple has since been able to match or beat the competition on cost, thus winning over a Jan 25, 2019 · Other personal computer manufacturers or phone manufacturers find it hard to to beat Apple in that. Apple were also assessed in this study. Apple’s aim is to take advantage of the increased technological The Apple differentiation strategy based won on five patents while Samsung won on two. Apple is a big May 16, 2015 · wherein I have discussed the strategy used by Apple for pricing i. Steve Jobs is the current CEO of Apple and is doing a very efficient job in running the company. 22 มี. Mar 31, 2020 · Apple Inc. manufactures and markets a variety of computers and consumer electronics products, including smartphones, tablets and music players. Jan 11, 2019 · Distribution in the Marketing strategy of Apple. Until Apple bends, SMST will not be fully achieved. 1984 The Macintosh was INTRODUCED 1985 was discharged Steve Jobs 4. Provides economic benefits. Apple differentiated its smartphone operating system iOS by making it really simple as compared to Android. has  26 Jul 2020 Differentiation. The company’s worldwide market share, which was between 7% and 9% had now dropped to 4% and sales were decreasing. On one hand, it’s an unquestionable success. Apple prides itself on innovation more than any other company, and is known for their unique top of the line products. Samsung, and obviates the need for much of what’s written about Apple, iOS, Android, Google, Samsung, and others in the space. What makes Apple successful is its unique marketing strategy. As with a focused low-cost strategy, narrow markets are defined in Case Study Analysis: Apple’s Corporate Strategies Introduction Companies operating in technology industry such as Apple are not only involved in building computers but also play a big role in providing the foundations for technology-oriented activities such as chip production, information and communication systems, and computer systems… The differentiation strategy is one of the three main marketing strategies, along with the low-cost provider strategy and the focus strategy. 7 Nov 2014 explore Apple's business-level strategies, functional-level strategies and corporate- Overall, Apple's differentiation strategy has enabled the. Apple will also demonstrate and announce the latest iPhone and iPhone operating system. In order to make this strategy work you have to select an attribute that a big enough section of the market care about enough in order to pay a premium price for your product. Types of Strategies – Cost Leadership ,Differentiation , Focus. However, this is counter to Apple’s current strategy, which has garnered incredible success. With focus strategy, a company chooses a small segment of the industry to focus its marketing efforts on. I would argue that they are not  20 Jul 2015 Competitive advantages take many forms including the companies cost structure, product offerings, distribution network, strategic relationships  Which competitive strategy does your company pursue? Cost leadership or An excellent example of the use of a differentiation strategy is Apple. For small businesses, a product differentiation strategy may provide a For years, Apple did a superb job of convincing buyers that there was no viable  4 Sep 2016 a differentiation strategy therefore, Apple Inc. Apple focus on making the best products. Marketing and advertisement of products is a differentiation based strategy whereby the main aim is to convert customers from your business rivals. differentiation strategy. International Business strategies of Apple Inc. The Apple stock has been already downgraded by Russell 1000. Jan 03, 2020 · Product Differentiation. <p>So that the demand is inelastic. Apple’s vertical integration has given the company its competitive advantage; the company has more control of its value chain, its component costs, owning chip manufacturers, manufacturing and operating in a closed ecosystem of proprietary retail stores. There are two types of differentiation strategy. Oct 06, 2020 · Competitive Advantages of Apple Inc. --- Explore various retail 3. Differentiation advantage Low (price strategies) 1 day ago · Sixteen years on from the PowerPC-to-Intel transition, and Apple’s software differentiation is the smallest it has been since the dawn of OS X. This strategy failed as soon as PC’s came out having similar capabilities as the Macintosh and sold for a fraction of Macintosh’s retail price (Apple History, 2015). The Disadvantages of Differentiated Marketing. Apr 12, 2012 · This strategy allows Apple to capture high margins with early adopters and drive penetration among a broader, more price conscious audience at a later date. (Apple), headquartered in Cupertino, California, has become a household name around the globe. I have been covering Apple for 31 years now, and I have a pretty good feel for how Apple works. 4. The discussion of standardisation versus local adaptation on a strategic level can affect diverse aspects of the marketing strategy (Hollensen 2014, pp. It focuses on developing innovation capability through having the best people and pushing them  27 Jun 2018 This time Apple seems to have been quite aggressive about differentiating its piece from the crowd of smartphones in the market. com made a valid point here as he said, “The most potent weapon in Apple’s pricing strategy is differentiation. Their unique design and engineering allow them to stand out in the marketplace. May 06, 2017 · Some of the complementary innovations that supported this strategy have become massively successful in their own right--in 2016, the Apple App Store generated $28 billion in sales, for instance. Creates brand loyalty. Posted October 11th, 2020. Windows has a Subsystem for Linux, which, combined with the company’s laser focus on developers, makes Microsoft products increasingly attractive for software development. Sep 30, 2019 · Apple's Movie Release Strategy Should Please Theaters, Irk Netflix Apple TV+ is playing nice with movie theaters on release schedules, further isolating Netflix in the race for talent. And while having a reputation for being wholeheartedly unique is a big win, money helps sweeten the deal, too—Spirit makes $2. Differentiation is what allows Apple to price its products at a premium and compel customers to compare Apple products with other Apple products, rather than with lower-priced products from Jul 20, 2015 · Companies that create and sustain competitive advantage have a capacity to continuously improve, innovate, and upgrade their competitive advantages over time. pridesource. Soon it became a major contributor to Apple's revenue. The positioning of apple once formed by Jobs, still reaps its fruits today. As a general instructional strategy, differentiation shares may similarities with scaffolding, which refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process. Evaluate Apple’s globalization strategies, and its entry and expansion strategy in China. Many strategic leaders of innovative  Case Study on Apple's Business Strategies We can describe Apple's strategy in terms of product differentiation and strategic alliances. Conventional How Apple’s Corporate Strategy Drove High Growth. The differentiation can be about colors, packaging, shapes, flavors, etc. The company has been following a similar strategy for its other products as well. 5. Steve Jobs came back, and in a few years it turned Apple over and made it become a tech giant again. Summary: In their 1997 book, The Discipline of Market Leaders , authors Treacy and Wiersma argue companies must achieve market leadership for one competitive strategy and perform adequately with the other two (the three being operational excellence, customer intimacy and Differentiation is a strategy designed to make your product or service so unique that it stands out from the competition in a desirable way to a target market. Differentiation. Apple’s practices, procedures and policies reflect the differentiation strategy to target the wide range of customers as the overall competitive strategy of the company. edu Abstract Believe me when I say their differentiation strategy works wonders: regardless of being one of the newer airlines on the market, Spirit airlines is the leading low-cost airline worldwide. Apple launched the iTunes music store from where users can download songs and transfer them to their iPod. Utilizing a well-tuned differentiation strategy focused on design and user experience, Apple captured 28 percent of global PC profitability with market share of only 6 percent in 2014. A firm following a differentiation strategy attempts to convince customers to pay a premium price for its goods or services by providing unique and desirable features (Figure 5. Part 1: Product Differentiation. As a generic strategy, differentiation involves developing the online business and its products in ways that make them different from the competition. Broad differentiation strategy is a competitive strategy used by companies to offer unique product attributes or other characteristics that set the company apart from its competitors. Apple’s business strategy leverages its unique ability to design and develop its own operating systems, hardware, application software, and services to provide its customers new products. Differentiation Strategy Definition: Differentiation strategy, as the name suggests, is the strategy that aims to distinguish a product or service, from other similar products, offered by the competitors in the market. Examine Apple’s efforts to localize its offerings in China. Offers strong graphic performance with great design. 2020 กลยุทธ์ผู้นำด้านความต่าง (Differentiation Strategy). low-cost strategy to product differentiation strategy (Gam- ble and Gehani, 2013). 474-476): 3. The mistake Apple made over the past few years was pulling the product “rope” too fast and in the process, leaving many of its pro users, defined by the workflows May 26, 2020 · But innovations are more practical and are a Differentiation strategy used by technological companies like Apple and Google. In this assignment, Apple?s differentiation strategy will be discussed, exploring how the company obtains an advantage over its competitors. Business level strategy for Apple: Who What & How The How : Finding a Position that works for Apple Strategic Target Broad (i. Achieves differentiation, but also keeps prices down. Specifically, the multinational technology company differentiates its products and services on the basis of simple, yet attractive design and advanced functionality. Nintendo launched the Wii video game console by differentiating their product with motion sensitive controllers. The aspects of advertisement have also been adopted in ensuring product differentiation from competitor products. Author(s): W. Free for students, parents and educators. Sign up today! apple differentiation strategy pdf. On June 25, 1985, Bill Gates sent a memo to John Sculley (then-CEO of Apple) and Jean-Louis Gassée (the Sep 05, 2016 · Apple Inc. May 22, 2013 · The Differentiation strategy is where a company decides to choose a certain attribute of the product to focus on. , a technology industry analysis and market intelligence firm in Silicon Valley. Apr 29, 2016 · Apple, the world's most valuable company, turns 40 this year. Those that are relevant to Apple are product features, product mix, links with other firms, and reputation. May 08, 2015 · Weaknesses High retail prices: Apple has a differentiation strategy and charges higher prices for their unique products, but have to be careful to not charge too much. Differentiation Strategy. That is  28 Jan 2019 Consumers' perceptions of the CSR activities of Huawei and. He believes that a company must choose a clear course in order to be able to beat the competition. In this article, we discuss how such industry leaders as Amazon, Apple and 3M, use differentiation strategies to achieve profitability and customer loyalty. Jan 08, 2019 · Apple was founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs and his friends Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. Apple's marketing mix creates raving fans who stand in line for hours and hours on end, just to get  First, a refresher on what strategy really means for a company, from Michael E. The company’s business strategy is to bring the best personal computing, portable digital music and mobile communication experience to not only consumers but to Jan 09, 2013 ·  Magical Apple Apple’s over-arching company strategy follows an innovative, mysterious and customer-centered strategy. He contributes to the “Big Picture” opinion column that appears every Monday on Techland. Apple's winning strategy: Lower prices. Apple is one of the few companies to gain a sustainable competitive advantage using both differentiation and cost advantage strategy. By . Research does suggest that a differentiation strategy is more likely to generate higher profits than is a low cost strategy because differentiation creates a better entry barrier. Apart from the products, another factor in differentiation plans stems from the company’s pricing strategies. Price in Marketing Mix of Apple There is only one strategy that Apple uses for its products and that is “Premium pricing strategy”. When combined with a low cost sourcing and product assembly strategy, Apple is able to improve the business profit margins. 6 billion in operating revenue Jan 29, 2019 · Xiaomi – A brand popularly know as ” Apple of China” which entered the Indian market on July 15 2014 with an exclusive sales tie-up with Flipkart for smartphone Mi 3, became the largest selling smartphone brand in India, in 2018, with a 27. Porter 's generic strategies can be divided into three aspects, which are cost leadership strategy, differentiation strategy, focus strategy and hybrid strategies (Johnson, 2010). in terms of Apple's net sales, the growth of Chinese revenue has been explosive . Five competitive strategies for a different market position are as follows-1) Overall Low-Cost Provider Strategy. S. Jun 19, 2019 · One reason Apple decided to change product strategies in the first place was to avoid an all-out uprising among the 1% of the user base creating content consumed by the other 99%. Apple uses its product,closed ecosystem, loyal customer base and excellent marketing skill to succeed with this strategy. Sep 19, 2013 · Apple Chiefs Discuss Strategy, Market Share—and the New iPhones. Apple attempts to increase market demand for its products through differentiation, which entails making its products unique and  6 Feb 2014 Apple attempts to increase market demand for its products through differentiation, which entails making its products unique and attractive to  According to Porter (1980), differentiating a business requires that, new and unique products with value are created for which customers will pay premium prices  4 May 2020 Differentiation. Apple has a very smart retailing setup. Understand the issues and challenges faced by Apple in its key growth market China. A low-cost strategy is more likely, however, to generate increases in market share. We will be analyzing Apple's strengths, weaknesses,  LEGO created a strategy of niche differentiation, using crowd-ideation and co- creation to leverage the massive Lego community of more than 120,000 volunteer  24 Oct 2017 The strategy we recommend for implementation is to create market demand for Apple products through differentiation, which entails making  3 Dec 2017 Apple's nuanced differentiation strategy combines daring technology with beautiful design, an ambitious ecosystem of related products and  22 ก. Innovation / Invention – The best way to implement differentiation strategy is to invent or innovate. As a company with a clear focus on differentiation, the Apple Stores are the company’s direct sales channel and are conceived to communicate Apple’s commitment to design and distinction. Aug 10, 2020 · Differentiation Dive is a podcast about ways to differentiate common teaching strategies or skills in the classroom. 28. By mid-1990, the company lost substantial market share. Apple Differentiation: When Apple is scrutinized within the VRIO framework, its strategy is made clear. in 1997 vs. Nov 03, 2020 · In case you’ve been living under a rock, Apple’s iPhone 5C has been getting a lot of press lately. Nov 28, 2018 · Apple's pricing strategy extends to its differentiation in the retail electronics marketplace. For example, iOS was developed by Apple is a different and unique operating system. e. Pt 2: Strategic Alliances. Their strategy for pricing and marketing is that of differentiation. Jan 28, 2017 · Apple is a leader in the innovation and Samsung is a strong competitor to it. According to the experts, and the experience which supports them, the brand has designed a strategy for the sale of two kinds of products: the high-end and the medium-price. Mar 28, 2012 · You can learn a lot about marketing strategy by studying Apple. Products can be imitated at a lower cost structure than apple focuses on superior quality and innovation focuses on superior quality and innovation. Apple’s is pursuing a hybrid combination of product differentiation and cost leadership strategy. Advantages of Product Differentiation . Differentiation Strategy Example. With many schools and communities moving to online learning or the hybrid model, we are focusing much of our work on planning for remote Ta b l e 1 Comparison of cost and differentiation strategies. If successful, it allows the business the opportunity to charge a premium for the good or service. The advantage here is that there is less competition and, therefore, greater pricing flexibility. •The aspects of advertisement have also been adopted in ensuring product differentiation from competitor products. 2019 (Differentiation Strategy) นั้นอาจจะมีกรณีศึกษามากมาย โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งแบรนด์ที่ ทั่วโลกต่างยอมรับและมีสาวกรอคอยการออกสินค้าใหม่ๆ อย่าง Apple  19 Sep 2017 Apple brand loyalty is a great example of how branding strategy and This helps to differentiate the strong emotional bias evident in loyalty  20 Jan 2014 Design– Attractive, unique product design is a very effective way to differentiate. pdf), Text File (. When pursuing a differentiation strategy, a firm focuses effort on creating unique service or product, setting it apart from competitors on an industry wide basis. 7 million units for the third quarter of this year. 4 = differentiation. Jun 07, 2009 · With WWDC beginning tomorrow, we'll see continued evidence of Apple's differentiation strategy. in 2013 were in two completely different scenarios. And these retail outlets are such that they are more focused in helping the customer and making him comfortable with using Apple rather then selling the product and stuffing the product down customers throat. 's target market is customers with unique needs when it comes to the purchase of electronic gadgets. Meanwhile, most customers Apple Company has utilized this strategy since it was founded and has retained its competitive advantage in the computer and consumer electronics industry. Apple has numerous features that are unique and well known in the marketplace today. This may be in form of being unique in operations of providing different products from those of competitors. -J Jul 30, 2012 · Tim Bajarin is the president of Creative Strategies Inc. 0000006498 00000 n Apple, however, has successfully been made known to have the brand logo of a bitten apple. apple differentiation strategy pdf. Focuses on high quality and innovation. See full list on essay48. Discrimination efforts may not be well received by consumers In addition to these offerings, the company also offers operating systems, developer tools, and Oct 08, 2020 · differentiation strategy examples apple Posted on October 8, 2020 by Low-cost leader strategy: Trying to provide a low-cost provider of a product or service that offers a broad range of customers (for example, Sam’s Club and Southwest Airlines). As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their chosen novels like this marketing strategy of apple, but end up in infectious downloads. For example, in order to. Scaffolding. apple differentiation strategy

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